(Albert Einstein, 1918)
The purpose of this Cosmology page is to simply explain the two cosmology theories that are consistent with current observations. You will need a basic understanding of the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) before you read it (see links on side of page). And try and keep in mind that you are not reading some abstract mathematical explanation - this WSM cosmology is actually describing what you really are, how you exist in this space of the universe and interact with everything around you!
1. Our Finite Spherical Universe is all that Exists.
(Which led to the Big Bang Theory for the Creation of the Universe).
To briefly summarise, if the universe is finite (and all there is) then there are only three options.
1. The universe is static - then it needs an antigravity component to stop it collapsing (Einstein's cosmological constant).
2. The universe is contracting (there is no evidence for this).
3. The universe is expanding (the redshift with distance supports this if it is caused by Doppler shifting due to receding motion - this is the path Cosmology went down).
But this has numerous problems; e.g. what caused the big bang, what is it expanding into, what is outside the boundary of the finite universe?
2. Our Finite Spherical 'Observable Universe' exists as part of Infinite Eternal Space.
However, the most simple explanation is that only one thing exists, space, thus it is necessarily infinite and eternal. From this most simple foundation we can then deduce that matter must be formed from waves in Space.
From this foundation of our finite observable universe being part of infinite space we can then show that you get a redshift with distance due to decreasing overlap of Hubble spheres (finite observable universe). Basically every wave center 'particle' is at the center of its finite spherical universe within infinite space - and as matter moves farther apart there is less overlap of Hubble spheres, thus less wave interactions which leads to a redshift with distance.
Further, we can then deduce Mach's principle and unite finite matter with infinite space due to Huygens' principle / sharing of waves. This is very important - one of the great deductions from Milo's Wolff's pioneering work on the Wave Structure of Matter.
So we see that there were actually two paths to explore - cosmologists went down the 'Big Bang' path of the universe being all that exists and ignored the other more simple explanation founded on infinite Space (though it only works if you understand the Wave Structure of Matter in Space).
From these two cosmology theories we can then easily show that a cosmology founded on the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) in Infinite Eternal Space is the most simple, that it matches observations correctly, and explains and solves the many problems currently caused by the Big Bang creation theory of Cosmology.
A Very Short Summary of the WSM Cosmology of Infinite Eternal Space
When we look around us in space we see that we are surrounded by other matter (planets, stars, galaxies, galaxy clusters, etc.). The WSM cosmology deduces that this is true wherever you are in infinite space.
However, we only see a finite spherical region of infinite space and other matter, which we call our finite spherical observable universe. i.e. WSM cosmology is founded on the most simple solution - describing an infinite eternal space full of matter, but matter only interacts with other matter in a finite spherical region of infinite space, which we call our 'observable universe'.
(NOTE: To avoid confusion I use the term 'observable universe' rather than universe. Our observable universe exists as a finite spherical region of infinite eternal space. We can only see and interact with other matter within our observable universe.)
This Differs from the Big Bang Theory in Two Ways
WSM cosmology describes an infinite eternal perpetual system. There is no beginning or end to space and its wave motions that form matter.
While the observable universe is finite in both theories, in the Big Bang theory the universe is all there is, whereas in WSM cosmology the observable universe (Hubble Sphere) is just a finite spherical region of infinite eternal space.
What does the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) Cosmology Explain?
1. Redshift with Distance
It is a remarkable coincidence that there are actually two ways that you get a redshift with distance (and strangely only the big bang explanation was considered which is the most complicated explanation, the most simple explanation was never considered).
Fig.1 - In Big Bang cosmology, the universe is all that exists, thus to prevent it gravitationally collapsing an expanding universe was proposed. The discovery of the redshift with distance seemed to confirm this, where the redshift is assumed to be a Doppler effect of receding motion due to an expanding universe.
The problems with the Big Bang theory are obvious!
What is a 'Big Bang' and how does it create Space, Time, Matter and Motion?
What is outside the expanding universe?
Fig.2 - In WSM Cosmology, the observable universe is just a finite spherical region of infinite eternal space. We can only see and interact with other matter in this region. Thus there is no need for an expanding universe, as other matter around our observable universe prevents it from collapsing. This is the equivalent of Einstein's Cosmological / Antigravity constant, but it is just normal gravity of matter outside our observable universe within infinite space.
So why the redshift with distance?
Because as we look at matter farther away from us, we find that we share less overlap of a common finite spherical observable universe. And this means that there is less energy exchange, which equates to a redshift with distance.
See The Cosmological Redshift Explained by the Intersection of Hubble Spheres
This article shows that each wave center 'particle' is the center of its finite spherical observable universe (Hubble Sphere) within infinite Space. As two wave center 'particles' move apart there is less overlap of common Hubble spheres / observable universes, thus less wave interactions with increasing distance, thus less energy exchange which then provides a simple sensible explanation of the redshift with distance.
2. How our Finite Spherical Universe Exists within Infinite Eternal Space
A common question asked of the spherical standing wave structure of matter is;
"Where do the In-Waves come from that form our matter?".
The answer is simple, from the Out-Waves of all the other matter around us within our finite spherical observable universe (which is a direct consequence of Huygens' Principle). Thus our mass / wave energy density is finite because it is determined by a finite amount of other matter. See the Equation of the Cosmos.
Mach's principle (the mass of a body is determined by all other matter in the universe) is deduced for the first time. Thus we are now able to understand why the following quote from Einstein (based on the ideas of Ernst Mach) is true.
I must not fail to mention that a theoretical argument can be adduced in favor of the hypothesis of a finite universe. The general theory of relativity teaches that the inertial mass of a given body is greater as there are more ponderable masses in proximity to it; thus it seems very natural to reduce the total inertia (mass) of a body to interactions between it and the other bodies in the universe, as indeed, ever since Newton's time, gravity has been completely reduced to interaction between bodies. The results of calculation also indicate that the universe would necessarily be spherical.
(Albert Einstein, 1954)
3. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR)
The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) is sensibly explained due to radiation from cold matter in interstellar space.
4. Finally, the WSM cosmology predicts that motion of distant galaxies will behave as if there is matter all around them, whereas in the big bang cosmology there would only be matter on one side (the inside, as there is no 'outside').
The Wave Structure of Matter is the most simple science theory of reality and it clearly works (so it would be strange to dismiss this WSM Cosmology, given that it matches empirical facts very well).
The only difficulty is that it is new, and most people have been brought up with 'particle' physics and the Big Bang theory, so it takes a while for our minds to adjust to this new way of seeing things. But the Wave Structure of Matter in Space is simple, sensible and obvious once known.
Metaphysics: Reality & Cosmology must be Founded on One Thing Infinitely & Eternally Existing
While this may surprise some people, both ancient Indian and Greek Philosophy & Metaphysics realised that matter interacts with ALL other matter in the Observable Universe, thus there is clearly a connection between the Structure of Matter and the Structure of the Observable Universe.
The roman stoic philosopher king, Marcus Aurelius explains this beautifully, though many philosophers and mystics have realised this interconnection of matter in Space (this dynamic unity of reality is the founding principle of ancient Greek & Indian Philosophy).
Frequently consider the connection of all things in the Universe. ... Reflect upon the multitude of bodily and mental events taking place in the same brief time, simultaneously in every one of us and so you will not be surprised that many more events, or rather all things that come to pass, exist simultaneously in the one and entire unity, which we call the Universe. ... We should not say ‘I am an Athenian’ or ‘I am a Roman’ but ‘I am a Citizen of the Universe'. (Marcus Aurelius, 170AD)
All things come out of the one, and the one out of all things. (Heraclitus, 500BC)
All phenomena, link together in a mutually conditioning network. (Buddha, 500BC)
Though One, Brahman is the cause of the many. (Rig Veda, 1200BC)
When the Ten Thousand things are viewed in their Oneness, we return to the Origin and remain where we have always been. (Sen T'sen)
Likewise, Western Philosophy and Physics has come to the same conclusion, as Leibniz, Bradley and Smolin write;
(Leibniz, Monadology, 1670) Reality cannot be found except in One single source, because of the interconnection of all things with one another. ... I maintain also that substances, whether material or immaterial, cannot be conceived in their bare essence without any activity, activity being of the essence of substance in general. (Leibniz, )
(Bradley, 1846-1924) We may agree, perhaps, to understand by Metaphysics an attempt to know reality as against mere appearance, or the study of first principles or ultimate truths, or again the effort to comprehend the universe, not simply piecemeal or by fragments, but somehow as a whole.
(Lee Smolin, 1997) It can no longer be maintained that the properties of any one thing in the universe are independent of the existence or non-existence of everything else. It is, at last, no longer sensible to speak of a universe with only one thing in it.
This is of course fundamentally important to our understanding of what Matter is, what the Universe is, and what Space is. It is the purpose of this article to explain the solution to the problem of understanding this interconnection between our matter existing in our finite spherical observable Universe (many finite temporal things) and Space (the one infinite eternal thing).
Currently, Cosmology is obscured by an incorrect belief in the ‘Big Bang’ - that the universe is expanding, and thus had a beginning at some time in the past. As we shall explain, this is not correct, for the simple reason that the observed ‘Hubble’ redshift with distance is NOT caused by a Doppler shift due to receding Motion / expanding Universe, but rather, is caused by diminishing Wave Motion interactions with distance.
(This is explained in detail below, but quickly summarised, as reality must be founded on One thing existing (Space), there can be no expansion or creation of Space, Space simply exists, Infinite and Eternal. In fact the Wave Structure of Matter explains that Time is Caused by wave Motion, thus only Matter in Space, as the Spherical Wave Motion of Space, experiences Time. Space is Eternal (does not experience Time) thus it cannot be ‘created’.)
Again, both ancient Indian and Greek Philosophy correctly realised that something is never created from nothing ‘ex nihilo’, thus something has eternally existed;
Without beginning or end (through eternity) this world has continued to exist as such. There is nothing here to be questioned. In no place or time was this world ever observed otherwise by anybody in the past, nor will it be, in the future. (Madhva, 1250AD)
Alternatively, suppose we were to accept the mythical genesis of the world from night or the natural philosophers' claim that 'all things were originally together.' We are still left with the same impossible consequence. How is everything to be set in motion, unless there is actually to be some cause of movement? Matter is not going to set itself in motion - its movement depends on a motive cause. (Aristotle, 340BC)
Unfortunately, the 'Big Bang' theory for the creation of our Universe is now well established, and many careers are founded on this concept. Thus it is natural that the emerging school of ‘dissident’ scientists who disagree with this theory will cause conflicts within the academic world that, sadly, often have little to do with determining the truth. While I do not wish to become embroiled in this debate, nonetheless, as philosophers of science we are bound to follow the truth, as Tolstoy wrote;
Wrong does not cease to be wrong because the majority share in it. (Leo Tolstoy)
And from this most simple foundation of One thing, Space, existing as a Wave Medium it becomes obvious that the belief in a ‘Big Bang’ is founded upon a basic error, and that once the truth is realised then we find that all the problems and paradoxes of modern Cosmology are solved simply and sensibly. (See Solutions to the problems of the 'Big Bang' theory of Cosmology.)
Geoff Haselhurst, Email
Brief Summary of the History of Cosmology
I recently received a letter about this page which made the following interesting point;
I am a bit reluctant to include any of the anti big bang stuff you include here. This is not only because I have not had time to ponder it in detail. The thing that worries me most is that I thought that Einstein once described his cosmological constant as his biggest blunder. Is this true? Was he fooled by the arguments of others?
Here I shall make a brief reply to these comments, founded on the Wave Structure of Matter. The article which then follows provides a very comprehensive summary of Cosmology and a solution to most of the fundamental problems. (So you can skip this if you want.)
Einstein's General Relativity requires a finite spherical universe (it cannot be infinite because of Mach's Principle, with which Einstein strongly agreed, that the mass of a body is finite, is determined by all other matter in the universe, thus all other matter in universe must be finite).
a) What surrounds this finite spherical universe? (Einstein used his spherical ellipsoidal geometry of General Relativity to propose curved space - if you travel in any one direction you will curve around and eventually return to your starting point).
b) What stops finite spherical universe gravitationally collapsing (thus Einstein's Cosmological / Antigravity Constant).
2. Two discoveries, one theoretical, one empirical sent Cosmology down the path of the Big Bang Theory for the creation of our universe.
a) Friedman used Einstein's equations to show that an expanding universe was possible by the equations, and solved the problem of the collapsing universe and thus removed the need for Einstein's Cosmological constant. Einstein was reluctant - believing in a static (non-expanding universe).
b) Then Hubble famously showed the relationship between distance and redshift. If Doppler shift caused this redshift then it meant stars / galaxies were moving apart.
Einstein, swayed by this argument, changed his mind - thus his comment 'My biggest blunder' referring to the Cosmological Constant.
As we shall explain though, this is not the correct solution, in fact Einstein's 'cosmological constant is largely correct, but it is not caused by anti-gravity within the universe, but by the gravitational forces of matter outside our finite spherical universe within an infinite space.
Further (and this will be explained in detail below, and thus will make more sense if you persevere!)
1. Redshift with distance is not Doppler effect, but caused by Huygens Principle (a wave can be treated as an infinite number of spherical wave sources). It is necessary that all other matter's out-waves must combine in a Huygens wave front, to form our spherical In-Waves. We absolutely are a part of the universe (not separate / discrete bodies) - our matter formed from all other matter in the universe. This explains Mach's Principle and redshift with distance (in the article, particularly equation of the cosmos, it shows the mathematical deductions from wave theory correctly deduce Mach's Principle (Milo Wolff) and Redshift with distance).
2. To understand Cosmology you must understand the relationship between the finite and the infinite. The big bang does not explain this, it was not until Milo Wolff applied knowledge of the Wave Structure of Matter to the study of the Cosmos that this problem could be solved.
a) Space is Infinite (one thing existing must be infinite) but our spherical observable universe is finite. Matter is finite. We unite these two finite things, matter and universe, by realising that matter, as a spherical standing wave formed by other matter's out waves, determines the size of our finite spherical universe within infinite Space. Matter and Universe are the same thing / are united.
b) Due to this sharing of waves, only a finite number (about 10^80) of other Spherical Standing Waves combine with our matter. The article shows two separate deductions for this, one by myself (simple) and one by Maths Physicist Milo Wolff (mathematical, logically equivalent).
Thus there are an infinite number of finite spherical universes within an infinite space.
Observable Universe: The Finite Spherical region of Matter and Space that we can see and interact with (within Infinite Eternal Space). Only this other matter's Out-Waves contribute to the formation of our Matter's in-Waves. i.e. Huygens' Principle. This is the cause of Mach's Principle, that the mass of our matter is determined by all the other matter in our finite spherical Observable Universe (because it is created by it!).
The following short section is taken from a letter I wrote to a (very nice) woman who has been studying the WSM Cosmology. Hopefully it helps clarify the above comments about the meaning of our Finite Spherical Universe within an Infinite Space.
When people first consider the Wave Structure of Matter there seems to be this common mistake of thinking of one wave-center / spherical standing wave on its own in infinite space (which is clearly not how reality is, as there is obviously matter all around us). That thought leads to imagining the spherical standing wave structure as infinite.
However, the correct way of thinking (since it matches reality of what we experience), is that the space around us has lots (and lots!) of other matter. And calculations show that wherever you are in an infinite space (as a wave-center) YOU ONLY INTERACT WITH A FINITE SPHERICAL REGION OF THAT INFINITE SPACE AND OTHER MATTER (which we call our Observable Universe). It is only this finite amount of other matter that directly contributes to your in-waves. i.e. Applying Huygens' principle - their out-waves combine to form our spherical in-waves. This is calculated in two different ways in the section on the Equation of the Cosmos: Deducing Finite Size of Matter and Universe and correctly deduces the size of our Observable Universe within Infinite Space.
This Equation of the Cosmos is very important, because it is basically solving the fundamental problem of the relationship between the Finite and the Infinite. i.e. How we can exist as part of Infinite Space, and yet only have a finite mass (wave energy density). This then explains Mach's Principle - how all matter in our Finite Observable Universe determines the mass (wave-density) of matter / space - and most importantly why that is finite (within an infinite space).
So we see that each wave-center 'particle' is really the center of its own universe. (We are each the centers of our own universe - what a nice thought). And this applies to any matter, wherever you are in an infinite space. So effectively finite matter and universe are the same thing. Thus if you imagine infinite space, there is an infinite amount of matter in it, and thus an infinite number of finite spherical universes.
When matter is close to other matter, then it's universes (in and out waves) overlap and you get matter interactions. For us, matter 1,000 billion light years away is outside our Finite Spherical Universe and we can't interact with it / see it. It does not contribute its Out-Waves directly to our In-waves - it is hidden behind other matter.
So the Wave Structure of Matter Cosmology explains how we each exist as the center of our Finite Spherical Universe within an Infinite Space. I exist as the center of mine, you as the center of yours. But it just so happens that our centers are close together so we share 99.9999.........% of a common universe - which is why we can interact with one another, write to each other on the internet.
And if you think about it, you will realise that this must also cause a redshift with distance, because distant matter shares less of a common universe, thus less wave interactions, thus less energy exchange (which we see as a redshift with distance). Any smart mathematicians here can deduce this - just work out how the volume of two overlapping spheres changes as you move them apart - this should equate to redshift with distance (another meaningful deduction from the WSM - though i should add that there may be other factors affecting redshift, certainly the work of Halton Arp suggests there are).
This also explains another central and profound problem of Cosmology - why our Finite Spherical Universe does not gravitationally collapse. In an Infinite Space it is obvious that matter outside our Finite Spherical Universe, due to its gravitational forces, prevents our finite sphere of matter / universe from gravitationally collapsing. This then removes the need for both an expanding universe (which led to the idea of the Big Bang), or Einstein's antigravity / cosmological constant (which, is really just a gravity force from matter outside our Finite Spherical Universe within Infinite Space). So Einstein was close to the truth with his Cosmological Constant!